Baidu In Search of Copyright Solutions After NCA Fine, and Lawsuits May Follow Suit

By Danny Friedmann


Baidu Inc. and QVOD were each fined 250,000 RMB on December 27, 2013 for copyright infringement by the National Copyright Administration of China (NCA) and had to enjoin their infringing activities. The NCA started the investigation on November 19, 2013 after receiving complaints from Youku Tudou (since the merger in 2012 China’s biggest video website operator), LeTV, Sohu, Tencent, MPA, CODA, Wanda Films and Enlight Media; that Baidu Video, Baidu TV Stick, Baidu Yingyin media player and Baidu Video mobile app had infringed their copyrights. The complaints were also directed against QVOD, another software video player.


The Global Times reported that the 250,000 RMB was the highest fine the NCA could give to Baidu and QVOD. However, this would be only correct if the illegal earnings were no more than 50,000 RMB. If the illegal revenues exceeded 50,000 RMB the maximum is five times the amount of the illegal revenues, and they can also confiscate the equipment such as computers that is mainly used to provide the network service.  See Articles 18 and 19 Regulation on the Protection of the Right to Network Dissemination of Information (updated February 25, 2013 by Bridge IP Law).


Wang Fan wrote for the China Daily here about a campaign to deter illegal streaming of unauthorised videos in June, when 20 video website operators had to submit documents to the NCA to demonstrate that they had authorisation to stream 2,374 different films and television programmes.


250,000 RMB? What happened to the claim of 300 million RMB?

The administrative route is a relatively time and costs efficient mode of enforcement in China, but it lacks the remedy of compensation of damages. Therefore it was to be expected that on November 13, 2013, a consortium of video companies announced at a press conference at the Beijing Shangri-La that they were going to file a lawsuit against Baidu and claim 300 million RMB in damages. Paul Bischoff of Tech in Asia reported that Youku Tudou (since the merger in 2012 China’s biggest videosite), LeTV, Sohu, Tencent, CODA, Wanda Films and Enlight Media and other video companies were unified in the “China Online Video Anti-Piracy Alliance”.
According to Eric de Fonenay of MusicDish, Capital Copyright Industry Alliance Capital Protection Division, the China Radio and Television Association of the Television Production Committee, and many Chinese production companies gave acte de présence, see here. The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), Sony Pictures Entertainment, Warner Brothers, Disney and Paramount were present too, see here, although, according to Brid-Aine Parnell of The Register, the MPAA did not join the copyright infringement claim, see here. Ms Parnell wrote also that the alliance had tried to negotiate with Baidu, to no avail, because according to her Baidu would not agree to rules on violating copyright unless QVOD did the same.


Baidu argued that it took already four steps towards mitigating piracy: Research and development into an automatic piracy filtration system; Open complaint channels where a 24-hour team reviews reports of pirated content and consequently removes it; recommending high quality genuine content to steer users away from pirated material and Baidu’s web search will stop linking to pirated video sites.


Copyright infringement? Taking unfair advantage? 


According to Global Times’ Li Qiaoyi Baidu and QVOD were “identified as the top two violators of copyrighted video content for 2013” by Yu Cike, head of the department of copyright management, of the NCA.


The claim against Baidu and QVOD was that they deeplinked to copyrighted videos without authorisation: in other words that copyrighted content of third parties were directly accessible via Baidu or QVOD video players. This way, the rights holders were deprived of their right to communicate their works, performances or audio-visual recordings to the public (conform Article 8 WIPO Copyright Treaty to which China is a member since 2007, compare the language used in Article 26 Regulation), and internet users never had to visit the third parties’ sites, and devoid of advertisements on those sites. At the same time Baidu and QVOD were taking unfair advantage of the content, storage and bandwidth of the rights holders of the videos.


One can argue that the CJEU rule that “transmission and retransmission of works (even where those [users] streaming the content were legally permitted to view the original broadcast) constitutes a “communication to the public”, can be applied in this case as well. Read Annsley Merelle Ward’s analysis at IP Kat.


China has safe harbour provisions for online (network) service providers against secondary liability in case of copyright liability, comparable to the DMCA in the US (the E-Commerce Directive in the EU works horizontally, and is applicable to trademark infringements too, and is not just applicable to copyright infringement, anti-circumvention and technological adjuncts). Articles 18 (1) and 19(2) Regulation state that the network service provider is liable for copyright infringement if it is providing works, performances, or audio-visual recordings to the public through the information network without permission; and is obtaining economic benefits. The safe harbour provisions are not providing immunity against liability in case of actual or constructed knowledge, see Articles 22 (3-4), 23 Regulation.


Another claim was that Baidu provided access to video sites that host pirated content and do not have official licensing to operate in China. It was also stated that Baidu was profiting from advertising revenue sharing agreements with such sites.


Professor Eric Priest of the University of Oregon School of Law sets out in ‘The Future of Music and Film Piracy in China‘, that the conflicts about piracy of videos (at least for the part that are permitted by the Chinese authorities) could be prevented if China would apply an Alternative Compensation System (ACS) (where for example a percentage of the costs of an internet subscription via a fixed line of mobile will be redistributed to the rights holders in the relation to the usage of their works). The future Professor Priest outlined in his 2006 publication in Berkeley Technology Law Journal, is still worth considering today. The Institute for Information Law (IViR) in Amsterdam is doing a comprehensive study between 2012 and 2015 on ACS under the guidance of principal investigator Professor P. Bernt Hugenholtz, see here
continue reading…

China’s NCA: Authorized Copyrighted Works on Video Sharing Sites Average 76 Percent

“China’s National Copyright Administration (NCA) recently announced that on average, only 76 percent of the movies and TV series on the country’s 18 major video-sharingwebsites are authorized copyrighted works“,  wrote Lu Yanxia of Beijing Daily, edited and translated by Yao Chun of People’s Daily Online here. The top 5 most popular video sites in China are, […]

Writers versus Baidu: Does Baidu “Know” What It Is Doing?

When people outside the field of intellectual property rights strike a conversation with you about something related to IP you know it has caught the public imagination. 50 Chinese writers united in the ‘Publishing World Anti-Baidu Infringement Coalition’ have written an open letter on March 15 in which Baidu was accused of making available via its Wenku site […]

Online infringement and ISP liability

The IP Dragon hasn’t been seen for 2 weeks now. IP Komodo wonders if his cousin might return soon and is worried about the mess, especially since IP Komodo tends to leave the remains of his lunch lying around… Some interesting online IPR news IP Komodo has spotted: Chinese authors accuse Baidu, China’s biggest search […]

What Is the Superlative of Contributory Liability?… Local State Supervision Liability?

Managing IP magazine, had a link to an interesting China Daily article, see here in which a State Administration for Radio Film and Television (SARFT) official was quoted as saying that it is “working on the establishment of an internet audio-visual programs industry association (..)”. The application has been submitted and it now waiting approval […]

Music in China Business Model: Life Without Oxygen Possible?

6 articles to go: IP Dragon on its way to its 1000th article NASA discovered that life can exist even without the 6 building blocks that were presumed crucial; carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, read here. In the same vain the music industry thought for a long time that their only way of […]

Consolidation of China’s Internet Market Will Breed Better IPR Protection and Enforcement

7 articles to go: IP Dragon on its way to its 1000th article China Knowledge@Wharton, a bi-weekly online resource, has an interesting overview article about the Land-Grab Mentality: The Cutthroat Competition on China’s Internet. Mark Natkin, managing director of Marbridge Consulting in Beijing said that in the business environment where rules can change overnight, people […]

Declaration of Copyright Self-Regulation of the Chinese Internet Sector

About 100 websites, among others Sohu, Baidu and Youku have signed a declaration of copyright self-regulation. Rogier Creemers translated the declaration. Thank you. Declaration of Copyright Self-Regulation of the Chinese Internet Sector In order to safeguard copyright and related right holders’ lawful rights and interest, stimulate the healthy development of the Internet industry, safeguard social […] Infringes Intellectual Property Of Both Google And Baidu

Yu Le and Ralph Jennings have an article for Reuters on the PC Magazine website about a Google clone called, probably using Google’s technology without permission, with part of the Baidu logo in its logo. It wants to compete with Google but also wants that Google stays in China. Read more here.

2010: Beijing No. 1 Intermediate People’s Court: “Baidu, Sohu/Sogou Are No Copyright Pirates”

– In June 2005 Shanghai Bu-sheng Music, a branch of EMI in China, filed a copyright infringement lawsuit against Baidu. Baidu was found liable by People’s Court of Haidian District in Beijing for copyright infringement in September 16, 2005. Read more about it in Rouse’s China Intellectual Property Express, Issue 265 here. – In September […]

R.I.P. Thanks To Censorship and IP Infringements Or Just Face-saving Exit? is threatening to pull out of China, because of “a highly sophisticated and targeted attack on our corporate infrastructure originating from China that resulted in the theft of intellectual property from Google.” Read the official Google blog about it here. – Of course it is not clear whether Google is bluffing? If they do, […]

Shanda Literature Ltd Sues Baidu For Alleged Copyright Infringement

Xie Yu reports for China Daily about Shanda Literature Limited’s lawsuit against Baidu for alledged copyright piracy. Read more here.

IIPA: “China and Russia Remain Major Concerns for Copyright Industries”

The International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA) has made a statement on USTR’s decisions in its 2009 Special 301 Review affecting copyright protection and enforcement around the world. No real surprises, including that the IIPA commends USTR for the decision to elevate Canada to the Priority Watch List. This is what IIPA stated April 30, 2009 […]

New Face At Baidu Awaits Considerable Intellectual Property Conflicts

Ms Loretta Chao of the WSJ’s China Journal wrote about the appointment of the new general manager digital entertainment of, Inc., Catherine Leung. The blog article ends with a most relevant paragraph: “The company has tried to solve its intellectual property conflicts by signing revenue-sharing deals to share profits from advertisements on its digital […]

Internet Copyright Law 2006 Difference Between Winning (Baidu) And Losing (Yahoo China)?

Although both and Yahoo China basically provided deep links to pirated mp3’s, Baidu won in court, while Yahoo China lost. What are the differences? 7 (minus EMI) IFPI members versus Wang Hongjiang of Xinhua reports about a group of record companies who lost again a lawsuit against (a Chinese search engine and […]

Alibaba and the IP Thieves; Domain Name, Trademark and Copyright Disputes

Cherry Zhang of Pacific Epoch wrote:“Chinese e-commerce company Alibaba is in a trademark war with Beijing-based software company Beijing Zhengpu Technology to register the “Alibaba” name in China, reports Sohu. Alibaba originally applied for the trademark from China’s State Administration of Industry & Commerce (SAIC) on January 14, 2002, while Zhengpu applied for the name […]

Let’s Baidu The Word Genericide

Joel Martinsen has a great post about search engine Baidu which stimulates others to use Baidu as a verb instead of a name of a brand, but by doing so inadvertently increasing the risk the brand name is used to refer to the generic class of objects, so that eventually the exclusive right to the […]

Alibaba Sued By Music Companies Over Yahoo! China’s Alleged Copyright Infringements

Li Xinran of the Shanghai Daily reports about Alibaba, operator of Yahoo China (in 2005 Alibaba bought Yahoo! China, then Yahoo! bought 40 percent of Alibaba) , who has been sued by eleven music companies, because Yahoo! China allegedly provided lyrics, mobile phone ring tones based on the songs and enticed users to download or […]

Baidu Acquitted Of Charges By HK Music Companies Of Copyright Infringements

In September seven Hong Kong music companies brought against Baidu, the largest search engine of China, a copyright infringement lawsuit. Beijing No.1 Intermediate People’s Court ruled that the accusations did not have adequate legal support. The seven companies were:Universal Music Hong Kong Limited;Go East Entertainment;Warner Music Hong Kong Limited;Sony BMG Music Entertainment (Hong Kong) Limited;EMI […]